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Wednesday, May 31 • 11:30am - 12:00pm
(Book & Paper + Research & Technical Studies) - Characterization of Aniline Dyes in Colored Papers of Jose Posada’s Prints Using (ToF-SIMS)...

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Characterization of the Aniline Dyes in the Colored Papers of Jose Posada's Prints Using Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to Aid in Developing a Treatment Protocol for the Removal of Oxidized Tape

Jose Guadalupe Posada (1852-1913) was a prolific and influential Mexican printmaker; he produced thousands of images printed on a variety of poor-quality papers, often colored with vibrant but fugitive aniline dyes. The Amon Carter Museum of American Art has a large collection of approximately 400 prints attributed to Posada, many of which retain their bright color. A number of these are unstable due to oxidized pressure-sensitive tape residue, penetrating and weakening the short-fibered paper. In addition, aniline dyes are sensitive to solvents, complicating treatment.
Because aniline dyes have varying sensitivities to different solvents it is necessary to characterize them before an appropriate treatment protocol can be developed. A previous study of Posada's prints identified several aniline dyes using Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy. Of these, the yellow dyes could not be fully characterized. In this study, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF SIMS) was used to discern the dyes present in the colored papers with particular focus on the yellow dyes.
TOF SIMS is a valuable analytical technique for the identification of organic and inorganic components. Its high sensitivity and small sample size requirements make it potentially useful for the analysis of dyes and works on paper. For this study a selection of Posada's prints in various colors from the Amon Carter's collection were examined using TOF SIMS. Preliminary analysis has produced significant data for all the dyes analyzed. FT-Raman analysis was also conducted on these prints to verify the results.
As part of developing a treatment protocol for the Posada prints, an experiment was set up using artificially aged paper and tapes to simulate the removal of oxidized tape from fragile dyed papers. A variety of methods were employed. Samples were created by applying Scotch MagicTM tape (acetate backing; acrylic adhesive), 3M 2214 paper tape (crepe paper backing; rubber adhesive), gummed brown paper tape (kraft paper backing; starch adhesive), and Slime rubber cement to several c.1900s dyed and undyed broadsides, mimicking the Posada prints. The samples were then ‘treated' with solvent and suction, solvent vapor, solvent through Gore-tex sandwich, and rigid Gellan gum with solvent. The samples were imaged using visible light and Ultra-Violet (UV) before and after treatment, along with spectrophotometer readings to monitor and record any changes in the samples.
Because aniline dyes are prevalent in many turn of the century objects, as are oxidized tapes, developing an effective treatment protocol has tremendous potential benefit.

Speaker(s)
avatar for Stacey Kelly

Stacey Kelly

Paper Conservator, University of UtahnJ. Willard Marriott Library
Stacey M. Kelly is the current paper conservator at the J. Willard Marriott Library at the University of Utah. She has previously held positions at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, and the Amon Carter Museum of American Art. Kelly graduated with an MA in Conservation of Fine Art... Read More →

Co-Author(s)
avatar for Ashley Ellsworth

Ashley Ellsworth

PhD Candidate, University of Texas at Dallas, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Ashley Ann Ellsworth graduated with her PhD in Chemistry at the University of Dallas in January 2017. She previously received her bachelors’ degrees in Chemistry and Biology and the University of Texas at Tyler. Her PhD research aimed to develop novel ways to deposit and direct... Read More →
avatar for Jenny K. Hedlund

Jenny K. Hedlund

PhD Candidate, University of Texas at Dallas, Department of Chemistry
Jenny Hedlund earned her B.S. degree in Chemistry from the University of Iowa in 2012. Prior to graduation she held a summer internship position at Argonne National Laboratory in the Center for Nanomaterials. After graduation, she returned to Argonne National Laboratory for an internship... Read More →
avatar for Jodie Lee Utter

Jodie Lee Utter

Conservator, Amon Carter Museum of American Art
Jodie Utter is the conservator of works on paper for the Amon Carter Museum of American Art. She has worked in paper conservation as a technician, contract conservator, sole proprietor, and staff conservator in private practice and in institutions for the past twenty-five years. She... Read More →
avatar for Amy Walker

Amy Walker

Professor, University of Texas at Dallas, Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Amy V. Walker is an Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas. She was previously an Assistant Professor of Chemistry and an inaugural member of the Center for Materials Innovation at Washington University in St. Louis. She holds a B.A. in physics... Read More →

Wednesday May 31, 2017 11:30am - 12:00pm
Regency A-B Ballroom Level, West Tower

Attendees (176)