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Tuesday, May 30 • 4:00pm - 4:30pm
(Paintings + Research & Technical Studies) A Preliminary Investigation into Aquazol® as an Alternative Lining Adhesive for Paintings

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Lining has existed for hundreds of years through its early uses in artist studios to present iterations within conservation. Many paintings suffer from sensitives to heat or moisture- two key hazards of current lining adhesives and methodologies. This paper, as part of a collaborative pilot study, explores Aquazol™, (poly-2-ethyl-2-oxazoline or PEOX), as a novel lining adhesive. As a tertiary amide polymer, it features a neutral pH, solubility in a variety of organic solvents, and no discolouration upon aging. Key physical characteristics include high strength and flexibility in shear tests, as well as an easily altered flow rate and glass transition temperature of 69-71°C. Additionally, PEOX is non-toxic. All of these characteristics suggest possible viability as an adhesive for lining paintings on canvas. Aquazol™ 500 was tested on two traditional substrates of de-crimped linen, as well as polyester sailcloth and set using both heat set and cold lining methods. The addition of natural thickening agents such as agarose and xanthan gum decreased wicking into canvas and provided added strength. Through 180° T-peel and shear testing in Northumbria University (Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK) mechanical engineering department, quantitative results match qualitative experience of increased lining adhesive bond strength and flexibility. Further examination under magnification indicates a nap bond and, after reversal through force, minimal adhesive residues remain on the original object verso. The initial results with Aquazol500™ as a lining adhesive are positive and offer much hope for further research. Significant additional testing into effects of aging, climate, and the addition of biological media are necessary before recommendation as an alternative lining adhesive.

avatar for Blair Bailey

Blair Bailey

Conservator, Detroit Institute of Arts
Blair Bailey is currently the Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Painting Conservation at the Detroit Institute of Arts. She holds two Bachelor of Arts degrees in Art History and History from American University, Washington, D.C. and graduated with distinction from the Northumbria University... Read More →

avatar for Raymond Aso

Raymond Aso

Master of Science Graduate Student in Mechanical Engineering, Northumbria University

Richard Campbell

Master of Science Graduate Student in Mechanical Engineering, Northumbria University

Ben Dawson

Master of Science Graduate Student in Mechanical Engineering, Northumbria University
avatar for Nicola Grimaldi

Nicola Grimaldi

Senior Lecturer in the Conservation of Fine Art, Northumbria University
After graduating in 1993 from Northumbria University with a Master of Arts Degree in the Conservation of Fine Art Nicola Grimaldi spent many years working in private practice. Clients have included many Regional and National Museums and Galleries, organisations such as National Trust... Read More →

Kallum Moses

Master of Science Graduate Student in Mechanical Engineering, Northumbria University

Dr. Roger Penlington

Teaching Fellow-Mechanical & Construction Engineering, Northumbria University
avatar for Dr. Charis Theodorakopoulos

Dr. Charis Theodorakopoulos

Senior Lecturer in Conservation Science, Northumbria University
Prior to joining Northumbria in 2013, Charis taught conservation of works of art and conservation science as Associate Scientist, at the Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Greece (2007-2013). Prior to that he was a Research Assistant and Research Fellow at the University... Read More →

Tuesday May 30, 2017 4:00pm - 4:30pm CDT
Regency C-D Ballroom Level, West Tower