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Wednesday, May 31 • 3:30pm - 4:00pm
003. (Book and Paper) Cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrils for coating of paper artefacts

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Paper artifacts constantly demand conservation and restoration treatments. Nanocellulose (namely cellulose nanocrystals, CNC, and cellulose nanofibrils, CNF) has been studied for filling paper losses on cultural objects (Camargos 2013; Camargos 2016). CNC have great crystallinity, which enhance their chemical stability, and CNF have improved mechanical behavior (superior tensile strength and stress-strain performance). Previous research is patented under Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (Camargos et al. 2014). Therefore, recent developments aim at improving processes of coating paper for both protect and consolidate paper objects. Cellulose nanocrystals consist essentially of crystalline domains of cellulose in nanometric scale obtained by the acid hydrolysis of cellulose fibers. Cellulose nanofibrils, on the other hand, are micrometer-long entangled fibrils that contain both amorphous and crystalline cellulose domains (Habibi et al. 2010; Abitbol et al. 2016). pH measurements indicated that both CNC and CNF polymers have stable pH around neutral values. Crystallinity index was estimated by X-ray diffraction and FTIR. Results showed superior crystallinity for CNC (86,0 - 100,0%) than for CNF (66,2 - 64,4%) and Eucalyptus fibers (76,7 - 67,0%), which revealed a higher chemical stability for CNC polymer. Mechanical testing was provided by stress-strain measurements. CNC polymer is too brittle and Eucalyptus fiber sheet (without any additives) is too weak, so these materials were not tested by stress-strain test. CNF, otherwise, presented great tensile strength (255,3 MPa) and maximum strain (25,4%). These results indicate that a material made with CNC and CNF can be suitable for both stability protection and mechanical consolidation when used as paper coating nanomaterial. Preliminary assessment of CNC and CNF coating was carried out combining both nanostructures in three different materials composition: 25% CNC 75% CNF, 50% CNC 50% CNF, 75% CNC 25% CNF. The polymers were applied upon 20th century paper sheets (wood pulp). Best results were observed for 50% CNC 50% CNF, which presented high transparence, homogeneous dispersion upon paper surface and noticeable increment on mechanical strength. Abitbol, T. et al., 2016. Nanocellulose, a tiny fiber with huge applications. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 39, pp.76–88. Camargos, C., 2016. Compósitos de Nanocristais e Nanofibrilas de Celulose: Preparação, Caracterização e Potenciais Aplicações em Processos de Restauração de Documentos e Obras de Arte sobre Papel. UFMG. Camargos, C., 2013. Obtenção e avaliação de polpa de papel de nanocelulose (whiskers) como material para reintegração de lacunas em documentos e obras de arte em papel. UFMG. Camargos, C. et al., 2014. Polpa de papel de nanocelulose, processo para obtenção e uso na restauração de obras de arte e documentos em papel (nanocellulose paper pulp, preparation process and use in the restoration of paper artworks and documents), BR1020140073639. Habibi, Y., Lucia, L. a. & Rojas, O.J., 2010. Cellulose nanocrystals: Chemistry, self-assembly, and applications. Chemical Reviews, 110, pp.3479–3500.


Camilla Camargos

Substitute Professor, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Camilla Henriques Maia de Camargos has a Master of Science degree in Chemistry (Physical-Chemistry, UFMG, Brazil, 2016) and a Bachelor of Science degree in Conservation and Restoration of Movable Cultural Heritage (UFMG, Brazil, 2013). Among several interests, she has extensively... Read More →

avatar for Dr. João Figueiredo Junior

Dr. João Figueiredo Junior

Professor, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
João Cura D’Ars de Figueiredo Junior has Phd in Inorganic Chemistry (UFMG, Brazil, 2008). He works with chemistry applied to cultural heritage with emphasis on corrosion of bronze and silver and the use of corrosion inhibitors as dithiocarbamates and aminoacids. Other field of... Read More →

Dr. Fabiano Pereira

Professor, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Fabiano Vargas Pereira obtained the PhD at Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2004, on polymer liquid crystals. Between 2005-2009 he worked at State University of Bahia and 2009 moved to Federal University of Minas Gerais. His research interest include biomaterials... Read More →

Wednesday May 31, 2017 3:30pm - 4:00pm CDT
Riverside West Exhibit Hall Exhibit Level, East Tower
  9. Poster, Book and Paper