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Wednesday, May 31 • 3:30pm - 4:00pm
001. (Architecture) Identification and Analysis of Hard Water Staining on Granite in the Western United States and Comparative Study for Cleaning Methods

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Hard water staining on granite is a matter that affects many outdoor and indoor monuments. This is exceptionally worrisome for memorialists, monument builders, cemetery staff, and families. The severe delimitation of granite headstones in the Western United States, particularly in Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Nevada is a topic of concern. The stones in these geographic regions are weathered, stained, cracked, and covered in mineral deposits and scaling; some granite headstones exhibit delimitation after only four years. The scaling and delamination from hard water exposure has weakened the granite structurally and is cosmetically; the stones have become visually detracting and unstable, potentially posing a safety hazard for visitors. This paper aims to provide the reader with the knowledge required to make an informed decision when faced with an issue of hard water staining on granite. This study investigates both chemical and mechanical treatment of the stones as well as preventative maintenance practices to consider. All of the treatments tested are commercially available and have been evaluated based solely on their performance results. Projects Aims: The main objection of this project is to inform people of the issue: hard water staining on granite, particularly in the Western region of the United States. We aim to discern what is causing the staining and delamination of the granite through scientific testing and replication of the scaling on monitored samples and controls. And, we aim to test treatment and cleaning options, both mechanical and chemical. Once the data has been analyzed we want to inform the public about the most effective procedure for removal.

avatar for Alex Beard

Alex Beard

Materials Conservation Research Assistant, National Center for Preservation Technology and Training
I graduated from Xavier University in May of 2014 with a Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree with a Fiber Arts Concentration and a minor in Art History. I have also completed a major-level chemistry track and Italian track. My career plan upon completing my Masters of Arts and Certifica... Read More →

avatar for Jason Church, [PA]

Jason Church, [PA]

Materials Conservator, National Center for Preservation Technology and Training
Jason Church is a Materials Conservator in the Materials Conservation Program at the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training in Natchitoches, LA. Jason divides his time between original research, field work on outdoor sculpture and architectural materials and org... Read More →
avatar for Caitlin O'Grady

Caitlin O'Grady

Lecturer in Conservation, UCL Institute of Archaeology
Caitlin is an objects conservator with a specialty in archaeological materials and a conservation scientist with research interests in nondestructive analytical technologies and technical reconstructions of original manufacturing technologies and artifact deterioration to inform conservation. She received a B.A. with Honors in Art History with minors in Chemistry and Economics from Case Western Reserve University (magna cum laude), an M.A. in Art History and Advanced Certificate in Conservation from New York University, and, a M.S. and Ph.D. in Heritage Conservation Science from the Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona. Her dissertation research focused on the use of portable x-ray fluorescence analysis for the interpretation and preservation of museum... Read More →

Wednesday May 31, 2017 3:30pm - 4:00pm
Riverside West Exhibit Hall Exhibit Level, East Tower

Attendees (40)